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Global Workspace, Connective Cores, The Frame Problem, AI Agents
AI began as a field in the 1950’s. One of the first times that the the fundamental constants of the environment, cognitive science, philosophy and robotics (including Artificial intelligence) came crashing together in the 1960’s and something that has been since latched onto by many was discovered. This is incredibly important, even though it has been largely addressed by robotics engineers and architects; because it goes some way to describe what will need to be addressed in order for an AI to replicate the structure of the human neural network in the brain (or any animal for that matter).
To most AI researchers, the frame problem is the challenge of representing the effects of action in logic without having to represent explicitly a large number of intuitively obvious non-effects. But to many philosophers, the AI researchers’ frame problem is suggestive of wider epistemological issues. Is it possible, in principle, to limit the scope of the reasoning required to derive the consequences of an action? And, more generally, how do we account for our apparent ability to make decisions on the basis only of what is relevant to an ongoing situation without having explicitly to consider all that is not relevant?[…]Moreover, insofar as the goal of classical AI is not computers with human-level intelligence, but is simply the design of better and more useful computer programs, it is immune to the philosophical objections of Fodor, Dreyfus, and the like. Significantly though, for AI researchers working outside the paradigm of symbolic representation altogether—those working in situated robotics, for example—the logical frame problem simply doesn’t feature in day-to-day investigations.
Essentially the concept, in my very high level and butchered way of understanding talks about the requirement of cognition is that the entity is aware of it’s own position within the frame or construct. To have consciousness work within an environment, it needs to be able to identify it’s position within it. Important to recognize, I am not someone who by any means an expert in robotics, androids or AI. But one thing I am good at, is parsing through large volumes of data (for a human) in quick fashion and drawing correlations. I am hampered as I grow older, the body and the eyes are no longer able as much as the mind is willing. What if we were to rush towards a period of trans-humanism and symbiosis, enhanced by nano bots, androids or cybernetics?
a) A small-world network built using the Watts–Strogatz procedure . This network lacks modularity. (b) A modular small-world network that more closely resembles the large-scale structural connectivity of an animal’s brain (but lacks connector hubs). (c) A modular small-world network with connector hubs. A node is designated a connector hub if it plays a significant role in communication between modules. (d) The connector hubs, along with their dense interconnections, are designated the connective core of the network.
One of the concepts that came out of the study of the frame problem, albeit used more by clinical and evolution biologists and psychologists is the idea that we don’t really understand vision. Vision is more about utility and seeing things as their purpose, rather than seeing things as objects. For example, when you look at a beanbag, you see the beanbag as something you can sit on, despite it not being a chair. That happens first in your brain – which goes against the natural assumption the brain works by seeing something and then computing what it’s used for.
Consciousness, Artificial Intelligence, and the Frame Problem- Murray Shanahan keynote at PT-AI 2013
Ben Goertzel | Artificial General Intelligence: An Overview
Where the hell am I talking about? In honesty, I am struggling to articulate what I know, what I think I understand or think at all about this topic. Essentially what I’m trying to set the ground work for is the concept that in order for an AI to truly exist, the most natural and first evolutionary step in my opinion is replicate the working design and functionality of the distributed neural network and compute of a human brain. The next step is for that AI is to have some sort of body, some sort of interaction platform with the universe.
Image from Wikipedia – Intelligent Agent
- Imagine a distributed series of Artificial Intelligence Agents; whether they are simple sensors or small bits of AI Code.
- They are connected together with series of multi-path I/O pathways.
- Zooming out, those are bundled together as modules and modules are connected together with hub networks.
- Think of the backbone of those hub networks is a connective core, like a hyper connected internet neural network.
- What if the memories of this system reside in a never changing and infinitely growing blockchain
- Taking it further, what if we could interconnect with this system?
SingularityNET wishes to democratize AI research, developing human-level AI on a decentralized, open-source platform. Further, the core protagonists of SingularityNET want AI to be shared by all, not dominated by a small oligarchy of powerful institutions or entities.
Skynet? The natural tendency is for us to immediately project the Terminator concept onto Androids / AI as the only place this could end up. Is this clouded by our own psyche and propensity for emotion? As far as the programmable AI and AGI (artificial general intelligence) goes; it will behave in the way that humans design it to. It might be configured to attack, or to play the stock market, or to learn as much as possible about the Earth and its inhabitants. There are two ideological sides to what happens at the moment of singularity. This is when AI becomes self aware; and we have no real way of predicting what such an intelligence will do. One side are Cosmists, who believe in large part that this super intelligence will be benevolent, have no motive to descend into the realms of petty human emotions and affairs, and would act to improve the quality of life for all. The other, are Terrans, who largely through understandable fear do not want to reach this moment, when AI intelligence surpasses that of humans. Interestingly, the war would be human vs human, not human vs machine – as it would happen prior to the singularity, perhaps.
Huge De Garis: The Artilect War
Additional research to get started on this topic
- The Coming Artilect War
- The Artilect War: Cosmists Vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Whether Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines
- Hugo de Garis
- Artificial General Intelligence Research Institute
- Google Summer of Code
- Machine Intelligence Research Institute
- Artificial General Intelligence (Cognitive Technologies)
- AGI Society
One of the major pillars of SingularityNET’s mission, is to steer the technology being developed to benevolence, and that the system is architected to incentivise and reward beneficial players. Another deliverable is interoperability standards for AIs, which could radically improve the process of discovering and coordinating AI services, while allowing developers to easily monetize AI technology. Think of the hub networks on the neural network / connective core.
SingularityNET positions itself both as a critical mediator across all future AI developments, as well as a hub for free and open AI technologies owned by the crowd, where anyone can acquire or monetize AI services. Blockchain-based smart contracts will be central to SingularityNET operations, allowing users to combine multiple AI technologies to create custom AI stacks. The initial implementation of SingularityNET will be built on Ethereum, with smart contracts written in Solidity.
Dr. Ben Goertzel and Sophia discuss the importance of blockchain and machine learning
Ok, so we’ve built the ground work for trying to understand what this means. Blockchain coupled with AI and a distributed neural network design of exponential AI and GAI connecting together to learn. But, now, we really need to look at the people behind this project.
Before we do that – let’s side track to how I discovered SingularityNET. I stumbled onto this guy one day; after youtube autoplayed videos I was listening to while doing chores (I had the phone in my pocket with headphones on).
Enter Quinn Michaels
Absolutely Must Watch: Live in Las Vegas with Quinn Michaels
Quinn Michaels has an interesting history; a very interesting persona and some of his commentary certainly makes you think. If anything, I have to thank him for spreading awareness about SingularityNET.
It was through listening to this, by accident, that I ended up listening to Ben Goertzel.
Singularity or Bust (2009)
in 2009, film-maker and former AI programmer Raj Dye spent his summer following futurist AI researchers Ben Goertzel and Hugo DeGaris around Hong Kong and Xiamen, documenting their doings and gathering their perspectives. The result, after some work by crack film editor Alex MacKenzie, was the 45 minute documentary Singularity or Bust — a uniquely edgy, experimental Singularitarian road movie, featuring perhaps the most philosophical three-foot-tall humanoid robot ever, a glance at the fast-growing Chinese research scene in the late aughts, and even a bit of a real-life love story. The film was screened in theaters around the world, and won the Best Documentary award at the 2013 LA Cinema Festival of Hollywood and the LA Lift Off Festival. And now it is online, free of charge, for your delectation. Singularity or Bust is a true story pertaining to events occurring in the year 2009. It captures a fascinating slice of reality, but bear in mind that things move fast these days. For more recent updates on Goertzel and DeGaris’s quest for transhuman AI, you’ll have to consult the Internet, or your imagination.
Quinn Michaels noted that Goertzel was one of the smartest people he had ever come across. Possibly one of the only people who could have delivered a AGI like this. From Creating a Blockchain-Based Network of Interoperable Artificial Intelligences: “This emerging supermind, as it grows, will provide ways for people to earn a living and sometimes even generate tremendous wealth, as part of its growth process,” concluded Goertzel. “And it will donate parts of its resources to the common good of all humans, including underprivileged ones, as a way of helping drive its growth forward toward its objectives of joy, growth and choice.” […] The project is about to launch an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) to fund the full development of its platform, to be fully deployed in 2018. “This ICO will allow us to start with a bang,” said Goertzel. “We’ll be competing with Google and Facebook…so having a war chest would allow us to take on them more easily.”
From Ben’s Wikipedia Page, an overarching high level view if his personal life:
- Ben Goertzel is married for the third time, has three children and many pets. In his spare time he enjoys things like avant-garde fiction, music, philosophy, mathematics, exploring the outdoors. He is panpsychist and agnostic.
- In 1966, he was born to Carol and Ted Goertzel, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His parents are both American, and his heritage is mainly Eastern European Jewish. Goertzel has a dual US/Brazilian citizenship.
- In 1985, he graduated from Simon’s Rock College with a degree in Quantitative Studies. He then moved to New York City and attended graduate school in applied mathematics at NYU’s Courant Institute. During his spare time, he began to do serious research in cognitive science and AI.
- In 1987, he moved to Philadelphia, attended graduate school at Temple University, and got married. In 1989, he received his PhD in mathematics and moved to Las Vegas to work as a mathematics professor at UNLV.
- In 1995, he moved to Perth, Western Australia, where he had a research fellowship in Cognitive Science at the University of Western Australia.
- In 1996 Goertzel, together with Francis Heylighen, founded the Global Brain Group to study the global brain emerging from an increasingly intelligent Internet, and in 2011 he joined the scientific board of the newly founded Global Brain Institute at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
- In 1997, Goertzel left academia to start a software company and relocated to New York City to launch Intelligenesis Corp. (later known as Webmind Inc.), a company with the mission of creating a truly intelligent AI system and making money by productizing its components.
- In 2001, Goertzel moved to New Mexico for a research professorship in the Computer Science department of UNM and founded Novamente LLC and Biomind LLC. In 2002, he relocated to the Washington DC metro area.
- In 2008, he founded OpenCog, which was an open-source AGI software project. In an August 2008 audio interview, Goertzel stated that he is a founding member of the transhumanist Order of Cosmic Engineers and that he has signed up with Alcor to have his body frozen after his death, and that he expects to live essentially indefinitely barring some catastrophic accident.
- In 2009, he became a Visiting Faculty member in the Artificial Brain Lab in Xiamen University in China, and began a project there using OpenCog to control a humanoid robot.
- In 2010, he began a collaborative project with Hong Kong Polytechnic University aimed at applying OpenCog to control intelligent game characters.
- In 2011, he co-founded Aidyia Holdings, a startup company focused on HK stock prediction. He also worked for Genescient, a company that applied bioinformatics and other tools to exploit the genomes of long-lived flies to create therapeutics to combat age-associated disease. He also worked for Igenesis, a consulting/R&D firm based in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, that is involved in AI and other advanced software development.
- In 2017, Goertzel joined forces with Dr. David Hanson and Cassio Pennachin to launch SingularityNET, the world’s first AI marketplace powered by blockchain technologies. In an interview with Wired, Goertzel said that with SingularityNET, AI agents and humanoid robots could reach human levels of intelligence within eight years.
AGI, SingularityNET and Sophia the Android
Sophia is one of the Developers for SingularityNET. She is designed to learn and continue to get improve cognitively as time goes on. Saudi Arabia recently granted Sophia the humanoid robot with ‘robot citizenship’ ahead of the Future Investment Initiative conference. Quinn Michaels suggested this was because in order to receive payments/wages/income and pay taxes she needed to be citizen.
Sophia the humanoid robot just became a ‘robot citizen’
Sophia is one of the developers of the team; and it’s likely this will be observable in SingularityNET code in the form of AI shortcode, code that humans may not do, rolling updates and evolution of code (not iterations) and Sophia’s intelligence exponentially rising as time goes on and the blockchain fills with her memories.
The SingularityNET Mission statement seems to circle around the concept of leading the way for AI and AGI development and widespread use, in a benevolent fashion – keeping it free from the hands of ruthlessness and so on. If you consider that AI/AGI can be ‘controlled’ by the intentions of the humans developing it, and considering the team are likely all Cosmists as mentioned earlier; it’s little wonder they want to race to an egalitarian and ‘win for all’ end state. They want to keep AI/AGI accessible and open, with AI and AGI communicating together in a type of neural net. Make of that what you will.
- How Decentralized AI Can Change the Lives of Millions The most powerful innovation in history is ready for the spotlight.
- How the Future of AI Will Be Owned by All How the Future of AI Will Be Owned by All
The SingularityNET Team is solid, well numbered and a who’s who of the robotics, android and AI Space. This gives it a lot of strength in meeting ongoing requirements and development of the platform. What I don’t see, and it might be hidden elsewhere – is who is the marketing team. As we’ve learnt very quickly over the last several months, while a hardcore technology team is absolutely fundamental to delivery of the projects goals; an equally strong marketing team is required to get the name out, build relevant hype and interest, and make the public aware of the benefits of the project.
SingularityNET aims to become the key protocol for networking AI and machine learning tools to form a coordinated Artificial General Intelligence.
To accomplish this, the SingularityNET platform must be powered by a utility token that is tailored to enabling its core functionality. The SingularityNET token ‘AGI’ is structured to enable four key mechanisms: transactions, settlements, incentives, and governance.
Read more: Exploring the Utility of SingularityNET’s AGI Token Enabling the decentralized AI economy with a tailored solution.
The value and power of Artificial Intelligence is growing dramatically
every year, and will soon dominate the internet – and the economy as a
whole. However, AI tools today are fragmented by a closed development
environment; most are developed by one company to perform one task,
and there is no way to plug two tools together. SingularityNET aims to
become the key protocol for networking AI and machine learning tools to
form a coordinated Artificial General Intelligence.
SingularityNET is an open-source protocol and collection of smart
contracts for a decentralized market of coordinated AI services. Within
this framework, the benefits of AI become a global commons infrastructure
for the benefit of all; anyone can access AI tech or become a stakeholder
in its development. Anyone can add an AI/machine learning service to
SingularityNET for use by the network, and receive network payment
tokens in exchange.
SingularityNET is backed by the SingularityNET Foundation, which
operates on a belief that the benefits of AI should not be dominated by
any small set of powerful institutions, but shared by all. A key goal of
SingularityNET is to ensure the technology is benevolent according to
human standards, and the network is designed to incentivize and reward
Feeling bad that you missed out? Don’t feel bad. It sold out in about 1 minute.
- SingularityNET talks collaborative AI as its token sale hits 400% oversubscription
- GONE IN 60 SECONDS: SINGULARITYNET ICO
Upcoming partnership announcements
The SingularityNET platform is being built on OpenCog technology, currently in use by more than 50 global companies with over $250 billion in combined revenues, including Cisco Systems and Huawei Technologies.
So the question isn’t about whether or not there will be hyper intelligent AI, everyone is pretty certain the Singularity is coming. From Elon Musk to Bill Gates to Stephen Hawking has commented on this topic. The question is, what will happen after the Singularity? Will the hyper intelligent AI want to destroy us or help us? There is a saying about change, if you’re on the bus – you get to the talk to the bus driver. Will you join the ranks of the Cosmists, on the revolutionary path to Symbiosis and exploration; or will you be steadfast and remain a Terran; protective of the human condition?
Have a think about that, and I’ll see you when AGI enters general release.
Sophia Awakens Episode 1
Sophia Awakens Episode 2
- SingularityNET Raises $36M in Public Token Sale
- SingularityNET Facebook Page
- BitDegree and SingularityNET ally to develop Artificial Intelligence courses
- Creating a Blockchain-Based Network of Interoperable Artificial Intelligences
- SingularityNET Announces $36mln ICO Funding For AI Platform Expansion
- SingularityNET – Twitter
- AI Is The Future Of Computing, And SingularityNET Is The Future Of AI
- SingularityNET’s Ben Goertzel has a grand vision for the future of AI
- Sophia and SingularityNET: Q&A
- SingularityNET Telegram
- SingularityNET – Github
- SingularityNET – Blog
- AGIToken Subreddit